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style='tab-interval:.5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:120.0pt;text-indent:-120.0pt;tab-stops: 120.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>From:<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span></b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Integrity Research Institute &lt;enews@integrityresearchinstitute.org&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:120.0pt;text-indent:-120.0pt;tab-stops: 120.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Sent:<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span></b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Sunday, November 27, 2016 11:27 PM<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:120.0pt;text-indent:-120.0pt;tab-stops: 120.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>To:<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span></b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>iri@starpower.net<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:120.0pt;text-indent:-120.0pt;tab-stops: 120.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Subject:<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span></span></b><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>November eNews<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal><img width=1 height=5 id="_x0000_i1025" 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style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='background:#007DA1;padding:0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1043" src="http://img.constantcontact.com/letters/images/1101116784221/H.gif" style='display:block'></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:#36547A;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK48"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=right> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>November 2016<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.75pt'> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='background:#007DA1;padding:0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1044" src="http://img.constantcontact.com/letters/images/1101116784221/H.gif" style='display:block'></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;border-collapse:collapse; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <div> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;border-collapse:collapse; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; color:white'>IN THIS ISSUE<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white;display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.0pt 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="#LETTER.BLOCK14" shape=rect><span style='color:white; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>1) EM Drive Works According to NASA Report</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.0pt 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="#LETTER.BLOCK16" shape=rect><span style='color:white; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>2) Hypersonic Flight is Coming. Will US Lead?</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.0pt 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="#LETTER.BLOCK19" shape=rect><span style='color:white; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>3) Quebec to be Zero Emissions by 2018</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.0pt 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="#LETTER.BLOCK21" shape=rect><span style='color:white; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>4) Going Clean: Hydrogen from Methane + Electricity</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.0pt 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="#LETTER.BLOCK23" shape=rect><span style='color:white; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>5) Dark Energy Might Not Exist </span></a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.75pt'> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='background:#007DA1;padding:0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; 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mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;margin-left:-2.25pt;margin-right:-2.25pt; mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph;mso-table-anchor-horizontal: column;mso-table-left:right;mso-table-top:middle;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 0in 6.0pt 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 5.25pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>MAKE A TAX DEDUCTIBLE GIFT</span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white;display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>We are a 501 (c)3 charitable organization, donations are deductible to the full extent allowed by IRS laws. Any amount helps our Future Energy, Propulsion, Bioenergetics mission.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white;display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='background:#36547A;border-collapse:collapse; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in; border-radius:15px;-moz-border-radius:15px;-webkit-border-radius:15px'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:9.0pt 12.75pt 6.75pt 13.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHKne9NBtQf6sg0AvefmZdkXBCc9ykBzuwENKWEOIKPeT-ApHR1pqCy_bhoSmGvC5Wq-DHmyGrxubik3sKE0qB32KNe2FzS6DXj8DXknwN5aj2v8OR1mm8QQl1o4ExG9ZijfLbXD97iOD_tuHfbv4sj2FQLP89irrZCyQGe-oqGBC3s3oUSK11OdnUpqWyev5E6ZJ1nNS5pDtBd0J3boCm-9dX2lnilYCZCYxbWlmrKRKpDvlNjA8-_NwzpP1hqiv-KqZz_Ofgi9ws2So-qywY8UVitWmL3K8uy5uFA7Q4M67azKAvG2EH_U0OJbtTbyyI9fg5banoAko&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="https://www.networkforgood.org/donation/MakeDonation.aspx?ORGID2=522265766&amp;vlrStratCode=7TNwBrwHeVa6UrcJVztljirP9x8tZ%2bUxJ2WCMg%2bBDQ%2f29t%2fxXk4B0ZwH2YkJC0g7"><b><span style='color:white;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>DONATE</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'></td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name=TOC shape=rect><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><img border=0 id="_x0000_i1048" src="https://imgssl.constantcontact.com/ui/images1/s.gif" alt=TOC title=TOC></span></a><span style='font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>We are GOLD Star Rated with&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHGWuJOTkirqCvgRdLJjvm_9bHS8ptL3d9Y5swpD5ZELvNG9yIeSfVusvxpUDqeaH4btUIMEAwSsuJ3Rqn_IxZGiT-xI3ErpkhEUS8RrhwuMbfUD268LrYhhKboo3HnBUh_HNCBnkX0KCxZBacuAy-fo=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.guidestar.org/profile/52-2265766"><span style='color:white'>GUIDESTAR</span></a>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Clearing House<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.75pt'> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='background:#007DA1;padding:0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1049" src="http://img.constantcontact.com/letters/images/1101116784221/H.gif" style='display:block'></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK53"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><br> <b>Greetings!</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>With this November edition of FE eNews, we also kick off our annual fund-raiser for our 501(c)3 charitable organization. If anyone joins IRI for a 2016&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHIHznCseCocsMwg17Q1MG0Ngg25VDFJ8O75GgWcRisuPUU3cGXeDz5njBFEjSVYhnneIq1htLj_RXesuzZ4ZGRfCVWfN-8Ebl-ybRk1YrpYyDBXGHPiVOSbn9Ud5-7YBD9YsdjBhDTnJ-6Q3CrkeHcMkD-Dc3jpU2E4RLZdNp-8-&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.integrityresearchinstitute.org/orders-membership.html"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>membership</span></a>&nbsp;before&nbsp;December 10th, they will get an extra holiday gift for FREE, one this year and one next year!&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHKne9NBtQf6sg0AvefmZdkXBCc9ykBzuwENKWEOIKPeT-ApHR1pqCy_bhoSmGvC5Wq-DHmyGrxubik3sKE0qB32KNe2FzS6DXj8DXknwN5aj2v8OR1mm8QQl1o4ExG9ZijfLbXD97iOD_tuHfbv4sj2FQLP89irrZCyQGe-oqGBC3s3oUSK11OdnUpqWyev5E6ZJ1nNS5pDtBd0J3boCm-9dX2lnilYCZCYxbWlmrKRKpDvlNjA8-_NwzpP1hqiv-KqZz_Ofgi9ws2So-qywY8UVitWmL3K8uy5uFA7Q4M67azKAvG2EH_U0OJbtTbyyI9fg5banoAko&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="https://www.networkforgood.org/donation/MakeDonation.aspx?ORGID2=522265766&amp;vlrStratCode=7TNwBrwHeVa6UrcJVztljirP9x8tZ%2bUxJ2WCMg%2bBDQ%2f29t%2fxXk4B0ZwH2YkJC0g7"><span style='color:#3F3FA6;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Donations</span></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;are also encouraged with or without membership&nbsp;&nbsp;Also consider purchasing a new 18&quot;x24&quot;&nbsp;Patents <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgJckgqxusO6kyqqn9nf1FWu-oB5FEfqeEFmhyPJvM5K2dQvW3WQX3WIbT66iYoivwSt0KOupjf3e9UDgKPwpnmuZrVpP6vfsWxDESZub2FhNyzRGJ3jJE5w==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.patentsprogress.info"><span style='color:#36547A; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Progress&nbsp;poster </span></a>that IRI now has the rights to sell and see &nbsp;the story of how it represents the entire historical journey from invention to patent in a humorous, educational, and colorfully visual manner. Great holiday gift too.</span></i></strong><i><span style='font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </div> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><em><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Another future energy item that I'm very impressed with is the $7 (on sale) <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgSF8lQajLdiDXgFkkT9RBDBOAcce4vzfj4VHYoKQMtfZUpk9MeHP_hbOygaO4kwWQtaP56wV-7_BtkkX-ep8giziAIjAHrDEozl6SJQLXGpJHhlSE1pWcPtuUrH9bhHWuAxS-x2Sp4JNFSPP0WPcfhNPAdknEs4nPXcKufjDLUG4kXgo8OLAogeofRLLdDcOygjQgF7Q7-QCzQXuIixgw_JYl8dJz_PHDmhCGOtID5dTRefQuBrUFrfvZmXs5T_atRW_P5UjxdcOS2tnMEjwQvzAQKstWdBLFZUiU5GXkcbl0oAOpSIwyR3wXv8r3nsuTyYRN3FBZ91w=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="https://smile.amazon.com/Cranking-Rechargeable-Flashlight-Emergency-Carabiner/dp/B010LQOROW/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1480223569&amp;sr=8-2&amp;keywords=solar+windup+flashlight"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>SOLAR rechargeable flashlight </span></a>that also has a windup generator as a backup! Use Amazon Smile to help support IRI.</span></b></em><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><em><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>&nbsp;</span></b></em><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><em><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Talk about surprises, with the impending step backward to the Bush era, we are impressed by the integrity of some major companies to <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgnH1lQXtuCl91ZEnpmyi6tL3GzSVaL29BqibIWc2H7mJJfjsCyNu9HVcgN5uOjR4wJ6Scm6PnJs7RCGla3S3MyHYDWazOyFwFuOryJV88NJ5J200c0_Vd30BN9JrtVlDGv9aXs5HzRJ8egkbQvU0Py8h3BJpR2VIz-mRDB0uV8fZ_piO2om_h0nF7iYSe3TV2KOcSaB_9BKxg2ffISmsxufE6fKC9RolBnslzv8129V-54r9fDVYzFatmnXrsiH-W8s5KYpeNuZ4s4UnJyzhTERNOvR4F_AN7zyoGzjngd8k=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/17/business/energy-environment/us-companies-to-trump-dont-abandon-global-climate-deal.html?contentCollection=weekendreads"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>sign a petition&nbsp;</span></a>which urges the President-elect NOT to abandon the recent global climate deal. And why would ordinary corporations be so concerned about the environment rather than squeezing profits from fossil fuels? One convincing reason is that human CO2&nbsp;emissions put the Arctic on track to be ice-free by 2050, which is only a couple of decades away!&nbsp;Each average American's carbon dioxide emissions are responsible for shrinking Arctic sea ice by nearly <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgMr0wdWZwbUAzp9O4jOfFKB-_DqlRA4_iU7xaW6vh9xik1Is-Ojaleu94oFUY4BxCJKP0PHjJeHPTJ_aQiEOn2Nb_DOmh6TX4KuGpTbdrEQmjtw1PMvzBAAY-nFbKvpHVZWvrk1fZ4evAN932Z9paLfTkGdHl1D1JzXeRPis5IpFde4h1hmcNY9B-bLUSeBOXUCkAlAqugpNCPDsQpI7pYA==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="https://www.sciencenews.org/article/human-co2-emissions-put-arctic-track-be-ice-free-2050?tgt=nr"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>50 square meters each year&nbsp;</span></a>&nbsp;according to a new study. Another good reason to support your unique <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHNftO2Wah-0nk4JFY89YHjkFQ5Zb4e6QIomb72ZKxrPFP90e3hVPvgQgUkYtZt57A6AhOJf7OTwdmlrSblOuhUKLAzvyJlqFYzCQyNBKr-2ozb807lnpHcjT75_urORI7G3pGrE6Z2y9&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.integrityresearchinstitute.org"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>nonprofit research institute </span></a>which is on track to produce prototypes of fuelless motors and generators, clean electric propulsion devices, and antioxidant electric clothing.&nbsp;</span></b></em><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Our Story #1 is a great example of how timely our research effort really is. As many still wonder if new robust propulsion inventions are actually possible that don't involve friction with the ground or exhaust out of the back end, NASA has just provided another confirmation of a fascinating microwave conical invention from 2006 that produces a unidirectional force, called the EMDrive. It is scheduled to be published in a major journal. An interesting synchronicity for us is the fact that IRI is presently facilitating a proof of principle of a similar conical Casimir force device that has sound theory behind it from Robert DeBiase's presentations at COFE7 and COFE8 (available on DVD). Check out the Additional Resource as well for more information on the exciting NASA breakthrough which they predict might get humans to Mars in only 70 days, just as the Ron Howard six-part &quot;MARS&quot; series is airing on the NatGeo channel,&nbsp;Monday&nbsp;nights at&nbsp;9 PM.</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Our Story #2 follows in the footsteps of the Supersonic Transport (SST) that had a mishap years ago. Now &quot;hypersonic&quot; transportation is scheduled to emerge as a passenger service, with many aerospace firms vying for the contracts. Ironically, the record set by the old X-15 of Mach 6.7 still stands, even 50 years later. Hypersonic flight is around the corner.</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Story #3 shows how important is the control of carbon emissions to the US and Canada. Quebec has become the first Canadian province to require with Bill 104 a certain number of sales of zero-emission vehicles, similar to California, with unanimous support. This apparently means that about one quarter of US and Canadian citizens now live in zero-emission vehicle jurisdictions.</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Story #4 gives hope for the quiet hydrogen revolution with a viable method for generating it from fossil fuels, specifically natural gas. Surprisingly simple, only electricity and natural gas is needed to separate the four H's from the single carbon atom in methane. The plan is to use the carbon black residue as a saleable product for several key industries as well. This also seems to be a revival of MIT's similar invention from 1999, as reported in FE eNews May 15, 2003:&nbsp;In 1999, Dr. Daniel Cohn at&nbsp;MIT developed a&nbsp;microplasmatron&nbsp;fuel converter that is used on a vehicle to transform gasoline or other hydrocarbons into hydrogen-rich gas. The plasmatron uses an electrically conducting gas (plasma) to&nbsp;produce hydrogen quickly and on board. &quot;The prototype plasmatron at MIT could convert about of a typical&nbsp;automobile's fuel into hydrogen. Enough, Cohn says, to cut emission of smog-causing nitrogen oxides by 90%&quot; (Hydrogen a Go-Go,&nbsp;Discover, 7/99, p.92), as reported by the <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTg8ND2QMbOsaMhW7cgjFBoyDKicE1-YLGpLs1HTIMVJfwfyzO1sKd0RYpqDAH5aaCd-2SMpSTAXBgOQ2NUl9i94VavMSCeK2Si5W9MPt9O9Xo=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.psfc.mit.edu/"><span style='color:#36547A; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>MIT Plasma Science </span></a>and Fusion Center</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Our last Story #5 gives us a more realistic viewpoint for the standard model in physics, with a less likely appearance of a &quot;dark energy&quot; forcing galaxies apart as proposed by astronomers. The comprehensive report from physicists at the University of Copenhagen just published assigns a low statistical rating for the possibility of an accelerated universe, based on ten times more supernovas than before. Therefore, quantum vacuum energy which includes zero point energy, will naturally be restored to its fundamental place in physics as the most fundamental energy supporting the atomic realm and electron levels in the opinion of most physicists.&nbsp;</span></i></strong><span style='font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Join IRI and make our future full of energy that will do our work and not work our undoing!</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Sincerely,</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Tom Valone,&nbsp;Editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name=LETTER.BLOCK14></a><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:#007DA1;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK68"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 3.75pt 7.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>EM Drive Actually Works According to Leaked NASA Report&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK80"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>By Will S. Courtney TheDrive.com November 2016</span></b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgkfelBooooDeKXbdi92GwAfg_KVYBe23Jj_nAiNcJf5WeHH57SqfXFcC_VUVml9KQ_jcvDDZkbnG_ul6R5HdCwwYpRflEIpQi3TtooU6vWFMMDyJr-ceEj4ImsxTjSGoL4t2g-RNiA09IVYGRiDASI13u_JRqjHFejtjVB4rljKKWtUAeGhvST3l-1FAapqRiPQsF-zPUgUIjf8MulfYlTF1FsdCuJUNHdBVcgbJ-qXi6vx7sWHrAVA==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.thedrive.com/news/5904/impossible-spaceship-engine-called-emdrive-actually-works-leaked-nasa-report-reveals"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Article Link</span></a></span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>When a scientist announced last decade that he'd built a new form of spacecraft propulsion called the EmDrive that didn't require conventional fuel, it sounded too good to be true. But the great thing about science is that you don't have to take someone's findings at their word; you can test it for yourself. NASA did just that-and while the space agency hasn't officially released its findings yet, a leaked copy of&nbsp;NASA's report reveals the EmDrive seems to work as advertised.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=left width=330 style='width:247.5pt;mso-cellspacing:0in; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-table-lspace:2.25pt;mso-table-rspace: 6.0pt;margin-right:3.75pt;mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph; mso-table-anchor-horizontal:column;mso-table-left:left; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' data-padding-converted=true> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td width="100%" style='width:100.0%;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><img border=0 width=330 height=146 id="_x0000_i1050" src="http://www.sciencealert.com/images/articles/processed/EMDrivePropulsion_web_1024.jpg"></p> </td> <td width=5 valign=top style='width:3.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1051" src="https://imgssl.constantcontact.com/letters/images/sys/S.gif" class=SpacerImage></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>The EmDrive, which was demonstrated in 2006 by scientist Roger Shawyer, works by bouncing around microwave radiation within a cone-shaped piece of metal, known as a resonant cavity. Those photons zipping around inside the cavity, in turn, forces the cavity forward-along with anything else attached to it, like a spaceship-as the microwave energy bounces out the wide end.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>It's vexed scientists due to the fact that it appears to violate one of the fundamental laws of physics. Based on our current understanding of Newton's Third Law of Motion-y'know,&nbsp;every action must have an equal and opposite reaction-the EmDrive shouldn't work, as it doesn't producing a material (as in, made of matter instead of energy) exhaust. Yet&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgPIRyVxc_wFbqmbuZMrvFP114z8rsYbIFPo0cF5ILM3gaGFBQmVCqmWvZvz-5-drWViNq3ej8-rDmKdec9g4aF7dC0Vc6k62emvCaNqlY87oiSTbhm-LLEfK3IkvMUDPgywvUQw_j_bJFefij1YkOoGi0i1oizCd2n7LC5HL8rHsuaeIZFZUvhKC3XzuId4Yw&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.nextbigfuture.com/2016/11/new-nasa-emdrive-paper-shows-force-of.html"><b><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>as NASA itself apparently discovered...in spite of Isaac Newton beloved maxim, the EmDrive works indeed</span></b></a>. (The report is still awaiting peer review, which is why we're discussing a leaked copy instead of the formally-published version.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Now, if you're picturing that scene from&nbsp;Iron Man&nbsp;where Tony Stark blows himself away with his own flight stabilizer, don't get ahead of yourself. According to the paper, the experimental engine whipped up 1.2 millinewtons of force per kilowatt of energy. To put that in simple terms, you'd need about 900 times that to make an apple hover in midair under Earth's gravity.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Still, by proving the basic principle is sound, the test seems to demonstrate that a scaled-up version of the EmDrive could be used for propelling spacecraft across the interplanetary vacuum without the cumbersome demands of hauling around massive amounts of fuel-a problem that poses one of the largest logistical issues for engineers planning missions to Mars.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Energy, on the other hand, is fairly cheap in space-all a ship needs to do is stretch out as many solar panels as needed and soak up all the free sunlight it likes. Indeed, with no atmosphere to mute the sun's rays or claw at the bulky panels, panels are more efficient in the vacuum of space than they are here on our planet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Indeed, the&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgbtieDSiu8vVBKcLY6COtLW0bkjXWjxiWwgEmTt1l37Ir7gIcf5ePtQlKfeLQH6KxK88L3sOF4EwJutQ5cX8LQBQUXXHK_jLazIbuh-_m0NwjR2EbzR4K-ERr1mR1KAQw7McoZmrGv_9yGHNdYjgz_wEwuvRoWRgXoug0MMyN1lfKdpJgf6Ooqci2dsO5BE65jogUiTeAnIGPCLxeCfjhJrWXjPFMxWQGEOsGnhfpJ36zuocRoTLqeqk0Q0ZVWN8ogbMTIF0beUC3lAqsos9enA==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.techtimes.com/articles/176203/20160903/emdrive-engine-can-theoretically-bring-us-to-mars-in-70-days-whats-next-after-peer-review.htm"><b><span style='color:white;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>EmDrive could supposedly allow humans to reach Mars in as little as 70 days</span></b></a>&nbsp;-far faster than conventional rockets. In which case,&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgzfWqLtLDkT0yzX_xI1NhvW_NiU-Vt9-gWz48VY_PdR0lJS9LqM8pFM9wM3hDVpy-hWoD4zalMb_9d6LYELG8jgDGU53Cj9PB1InbqaT4ZvulPUTtQ3kRey5l3fXzXH4MEbslnY57xUriMG65Q_387vq2elBb27Anm4k5KlN9FQFSP07g3B_weyNcyO_3Gh9X8i83expjfXMN-n1HtYQmcQ==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.thedrive.com/news/5351/elon-musk-reveals-spacexs-incredible-mars-plans?iid=sr-link1"><b><span style='color:white;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Elon Musk's pie-in-the-sky dreams of rapid round-trips to Mars</span></b></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;just might work out after all.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><br> <a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgB46sj5rTq_04S0o9buzI9sYQwRq3gOaYSA0QPokBVFt-Ugzs8FzkxPuc85PDAjeFoGsVy8T6eRF0qrhAuSds3HrdkGSao4fk9YsKwvWVIKdi1AbCme0SjEuf-9upHrcoEI3SpEebZzSmJuTFkMbACJkAzXjtV-t7RkAvCHngv2G5cSm_KWmYF1CJWukHaH1qJkS_VHPgSTw=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.sciencealert.com/leaked-nasa-paper-shows-the-impossible-em-drive-really-does-work"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Link to Additional Resource</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><br> <a href="#TOC" shape=rect linktype=anchor><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>back to table of contents</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name=LETTER.BLOCK16></a><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:#007DA1;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK114"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 3.75pt 7.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Hypersonic Flight is Coming: Will USA Lead the Way?<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.75pt'> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='background:#007DA1;padding:0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1052" src="http://img.constantcontact.com/letters/images/1101116784221/H.gif" style='display:block'></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK18"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>By Douglas Messler &nbsp;Space.com</span></strong><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgBnYKW6KCvvqNMowZu2XK5nLEu4rEWv8HvLQkhdG3KAtl8IkOEQu5fS0kaNIfvz9t1SX2UrfF74Sqo35x00CQUw7Z0okNZEY1hsudoT9LJakWgwVWA1mAXMdEYXW66BLd-_WTbuBB_Us5li-UkSE2rwuzDjvOKMShuRuK2dIxl8V0NnU-3xQq3SUacqBvEsSDg65426O9-DISVSSgD-bNt8qyXmQm2gKFR-aLOswyPrvCyIDZlBwB-d0gTC8qfk9HgHIr6LPvm9j4YxCJENxEw398woNEh-x4&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.space.com/34631-hypersonic-flight-technology-united-states.html?utm_source=sp-newsletter&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;utm_campaign=20161107-sdc-test"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Article Link</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=540 style='width:405.0pt;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' data-padding-converted=true> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td width="100%" style='width:100.0%;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><img border=0 width=540 height=302 id="_x0000_i1053" src="http://www.space.com/images/i/000/059/729/original/lockheed-sr72-hypersonic-spy-plane.jpeg?interpolation=lanczos-none&amp;downsize=*:1400"></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>The&nbsp;world&nbsp;is at the start of a renaissance in supersonic and&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgwqE0CERyQfTdDYNkEWYwzs0zv3ILiOrLZvvNbe58gaS0EdYy61FsFUTUTlhEPvwyzTSKBNLykQUvG-EyEXXyNbDsrIKq7Xw2eaOdOX9ss9XECq6L3TvY3M2hlTHyHLETC9B7OQ8Ka0XNBCeUqOXpZzih5qXkTYoCzLLvGw7GgzRQXaM49yAWxQ==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.space.com/17085-hypersonic-x-51a-waverider-flight-pictures.html"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>hypersonic flight</span></b></a>&nbsp;that will transform aviation, but the effort will need steady commitment and funding if the United States wants to lead the way, congressional&nbsp;leaders&nbsp;and industry officials said at a forum late last month.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;What's exciting about&nbsp;<a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgvMeR7ng016apvfsWay_7JreZmIdkqXPu1SDqez3fxwRdS2PiwAyOtVlxSv2CKdXha7cmHTtkeSczVRgntIaOYighWkcITyAeP8s_CZjX3Z1V1sQzQ2UyCg==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.space.com/tech-robots"><b><span style='color:#36547A; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>aerospace</span></b></a>&nbsp;today is that we are in a point here where suddenly, things are happening all across the board in areas that just haven't been happening for quite a while,&quot; said former U.S. Air Force Maj. Gen. Curtis M. Bedke.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;There was a period where engine technology had just sort of stagnated - a point where all materials technology was going along at about the same pace,&quot; Bedke added. &quot;There just wasn't much happening. But suddenly, in all sorts of areas that apply to aerospace, things are happening.&quot;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Bedke was one of five panelists to speak Oct. 27 at the Forum on American Aeronautics here at the Mojave Air and Space Port. Sponsored by the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, the forum was hosted by committee chairman Lamar Smith, R-Texas, and member Steve Knight, R-Calif. Bedke, Smith and Knight were joined by David McBride, director of NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, and Craig Johnson, director of business strategy and development for Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works. Former Mojave Air and Space Port CEO Stu Witt moderated.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Knight has taken the lead on the&nbsp;House&nbsp;Science Committee in getting&nbsp;NASA's aeronautical program&nbsp;to focus on a&nbsp;new&nbsp;set of experimental aircraft. He said his passion for these programs isn't just about improving American aviation - it's personal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;In 1967 was the last time we went hypersonic in an airplane,&quot; Knight said, referring to an&nbsp;X-15 flight&nbsp;piloted by his late father, William J. &quot;Pete&quot; Knight. That flight reached Mach 6.7 - 6.7 times the speed of sound - a record for piloted aircraft that still stands nearly 50 years later.&nbsp;&nbsp;(Hypersonic flight is generally defined as anything that reaches Mach 5 or greater. &quot;Supersonic&quot; refers to any flight that exceeds Mach 1.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Since that time, the U.S. has conducted two unpiloted hypersonic research programs, X-51 and X-43. However, there was no continuity in the work, Knight said. &nbsp;&quot;We collected an awful lot of data,&quot; he said. &quot;But what I would like to see is that we can move that data into something, whether we are going to move into an aircraft that we're going to put people into or we're going to use it for some other program. We've got to have that continuity and move forward.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Knight noted that it still takes the same 4.5 hours or so to fly from New York to Los Angeles today as it did 30 years ago. Supersonic aircraft flights over land have been banned for decades because of the&nbsp;sonic booms&nbsp;they produce. No supersonic passenger planes have been in operation since the retirement of the Concorde in 2003.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>NASA wants to change that. In February, the space agency awarded a contract to Lockheed Martin for the design of an experimental plane to test technologies that can&nbsp;significantly reduce the sonic booms&nbsp;caused by aircraft. If the program is successful, the ban on overland supersonic flights could be lifted.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;We're poised on the brink of a new era in air transportation,&quot; McBride said. &quot;We do need to go faster. There is a market for supersonic&nbsp;flight&nbsp;over land in an efficient manner that can fly without being an annoyance to everyone on the ground.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>NASA also is exploring ways to improve the efficiency and reduce the&nbsp;environmental&nbsp;impacts of subsonic aircraft. Engineers are experimenting with blended wings and other innovations.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Smith admitted that the difficulty that Congress and the president have experienced in passing budgets has caused problems in sustaining research.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;None of that is conducive to good work getting done in an efficient way,&quot; Smith said. &quot;And we can do better. We need to get to the point where continuity actually lasts beyond just one administration, much less beyond tomorrow. And we're with you on that.&quot;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Bedke said there is no time to waste in moving these programs forward.&nbsp;&quot;It is inevitable that hypersonic technologies are going to happen,&quot; he said. &quot;It is not inevitable that we are going to be the country to do it first. But we can be the country to do it first, but we're going to have to put our minds to it, and we're going to have to stop the history of fits and starts, of throwing money at a big program, achieving a wild success, and then having no follow-up. Or throwing a lot of money at too big a program, taking too giant a bite, failing miserably and then deciding hypersonics isn't going anywhere. Neither of those must be allowed to happen in the coming years.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="#TOC" shape=rect linktype=anchor><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>back to table of contents</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name=LETTER.BLOCK19></a><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:#007DA1;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK78"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 3.75pt 7.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Quebec to be Zero Emissions by 2018<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK117"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>By Matthew Klippenstein November 2016 &nbsp;Green Car Reports</span></b><span style='font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgXn9IfQqL0HP0ySQE9ShaOxEwRAy8xkpnLS_NPjpKM6hkPspoYv6AkhxrYlUc0J2aNRO5f_svLshG6BmZQuLP-ZXfQwchDIR13RGdAOL_b3YpjvqiYpVklSCFXO2ayobw6SFOlju1gMsNcOB2Pvs1Xu7hpHo_m8r-0tHpbMp2re9QjIvkbxwbm_Q3BypfoF7_J_iAvtmc6cOwRc3kcgsDNm_dn2QMVlG8GW0keI7I1rY=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1106990_quebec-passes-canadas-first-zero-emission-vehicle-rule-to-start-in-2018"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Article Link </span></a></span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Quebec has become the first Canadian province to adopt a requirement for sales of a certain number of zero-emission&nbsp;vehicles, similar to the one in effect in California.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Quebec's Assemble Nationale passed the regulation on October 26 by a unanimous vote of 112 to 0, and to universal praise from Canada's electric vehicle community.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>The province joins not only California but nine other ZEV states (Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) at the forefront of electrifying North American&nbsp;transportation.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Starting with the 2018 model year (effectively, during the fall of 2017 for most makers), car companies will need to generate ZEV credits equivalent to 3.5 percent of their sales in Quebec-and the threshold will rise rapidly over time.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Quebec's ZEV mandate, Bill 104, received unanimous support in its provincial legislature<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Most government documents list a target of 15.5 percent of sales by 2025-though Reuters quoted a spokesperson for the Minister of Environment saying the 15.5 percent target was for 2020.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>These dates straddle the California Air Resources Board's target of 14.5 percent in 2022.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>In an interesting symmetry, the passage of Bill 104 means about one-quarter each of Canadians and Americans now live in ZEV jurisdictions.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Quebec has 23 percent of Canada's population, while the 10 ZEV states comprise about 28 percent of U.S. residents.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>While it has perennially jockeyed with British Columbia for electric vehicle market share leadership in Canada, Quebec's ZEV Act should position it as the market leader by a large margin.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgXn9IfQqL0HP0ySQE9ShaOxEwRAy8xkpnLS_NPjpKM6hkPspoYv6AkhxrYlUc0J2aNRO5f_svLshG6BmZQuLP-ZXfQwchDIR13RGdAOL_b3YpjvqiYpVklSCFXO2ayobw6SFOlju1gMsNcOB2Pvs1Xu7hpHo_m8r-0tHpbMp2re9QjIvkbxwbm_Q3BypfoF7_J_iAvtmc6cOwRc3kcgsDNm_dn2QMVlG8GW0keI7I1rY=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1106990_quebec-passes-canadas-first-zero-emission-vehicle-rule-to-start-in-2018"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Read more here</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgdtzSA-PsuIgQZtrhwz7wj0Q_WQK0ml_-uHf67z9dFy0jrszpxyL7q7yg1JuRFhNvbLqjTNKKBpOxwLMHvDOqMvSr5sInBG2REQ-tk40Hu9JOu9XO1_Jwu72OaEPsGWM_KwMQOS9xDhJon2SUnPB_8k1ydQzWVzGvSHacS6F39HD_byEHqAeOZBxStIJgAEy-15qn5uHHdTT1Pa1XKUqBqSHJaIMkC3h1dz1-PLJJiHXGOd5u-uIMew==&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1106996_santa-monica-to-require-net-zero-homes-from-2017-first-in-the-world-to-do-so"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Related link</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="#TOC" shape=rect linktype=anchor><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>back to table of contents</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name=LETTER.BLOCK21></a><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:#007DA1;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK118"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 3.75pt 7.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Going Clean: Hydrogen from Methane + Electricity<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK116"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=right width=151 style='width:113.25pt;mso-cellspacing:0in; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-table-lspace:6.0pt;margin-left:3.75pt; mso-table-rspace:2.25pt;mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph; mso-table-anchor-horizontal:column;mso-table-left:right; mso-table-top:middle;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' data-padding-converted=true> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td width=5 valign=top style='width:3.75pt;padding:0in 0in 9.0pt 6.75pt; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1054" src="https://imgssl.constantcontact.com/letters/images/sys/S.gif" class=SpacerImage></p> </td> <td width="100%" style='width:100.0%;padding:0in 0in 9.0pt 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><span style='color:white'><img border=0 width=151 height=227 id="_x0000_i1055" src="https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTbCNWppg_FXJhbNxk7Ub-_Ha4SuzNMlDRAACrlIsDx4tfyuMoWcA" style='display:block' class=cc-image-resize><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Jon Cartwrigth, New Scientist November 2016&nbsp;</span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgoHn-BwKljBqhnPZKwleLA7azv73HkVibRhKfgtpLQpl4wSi4ObnLx-Hf01nd_RhIU3YlOahX0eYPVJMB0yzLIlvWrHilJf4B2tnS34--DfW9k8o09qxZJ8mChch79KMUhCIYqzcomiBcpSAPfUB1zru-p3wy3Owibqnv1lHAP5V01ByGQnUmB7gw3pr-5BfR72womi5vlORqTiL-jCrGU-rRQvnw5jRCG_a40bFbB-gPvq1lcxJFveNm5tbmorQzWNBeuMuLNfXbUuJmbOi5TmCgNhDZHO5Uzw_uZQjXky7qnmJjZpFl7O-bfGwuzZVNjeNEOItRyIIoxGIf2W7THG15iAxbXjCaJNWfibDxAhI=&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=8&amp;sid=95bcc88e-b0ec-4ec1-bd7c-7c607787a176%40sessionmgr103&amp;hid=126&amp;bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=118547696&amp;db=iih"><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Article Link</span></a></span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><i><span style='font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Use natural gas to get hydrogen from the CH4 of methane and sell the black carbon residue to the nanotech, tire, and steel industry - Ed. Note</span></i></strong><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>SCARRED landscapes, billowing smoke, seabirds writhing in liquorice gloop: there's no denying fossil fuels have an image problem. That's before we even start to factor in the grave risk continuing to burn them poses to Earth's climate. But what's the alternative? Nuclear is expensive, renewables are unreliable, and we are a long way from making batteries that could power our fuel hungry lifestyles. Realistically, we are&nbsp;going&nbsp;to be reliant on fossil fuels for a while yet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>What we need is a way to exploit them without emitting any planet-warming carbon dioxide. Alberto Abanades thinks he has the answer. He isn't a PR man for the fossil fuel industry, and nor does he have anything to do with various schemes to capture and bury carbon emissions after the event. He and his research team think they have cracked the problem using chemistry alone. By simply changing the way we liberate the energy trapped inside natural gas molecules, we can have all the benefits of fossil fuels - and none of the guilt. Too good to be true?<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>It's easy to see why we love fossil fuels.</span></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>For a start, they are cheap and abundant. Discoveries of&nbsp;new&nbsp;resources and extraction techniques such as fracking mean reports of &quot;peak oil&quot; always seem exaggerated. They are reliable, too - you can shovel coal or pipe gas into a power station when the sky is cloudy or the wind's not blowing. And they can be portable- simply fill a car tank with petrol and you are good to go.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>We have tried to kick our fossil addiction before. During the oil crisis of the 1970s, all the talk was of hydrogen. The gas ticks a lot of boxes as a fuel: it is non-toxic and the most abundant element in the universe. It is&nbsp;clean, burning in air to create water vapour that falls harmlessly back to Earth as rain. It is energy-dense-you could drive the 600-odd kilometres from London to Edinburgh, or San Francisco to Los Angeles on a single tank. And it can be burned in power plants, even competing cost-wise with fossil fuels once carbon taxes are taken into account.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>In practice, things aren't so simple. Being light and tiny, hydrogen has an annoying ability to wiggle through any material designed to contain it. Like petrol, it is flammable, yet burns with a near-invisible flame. Above all, it isn't abundant where and how we want it.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>So it came as little surprise when, in 2009, then US energy secretary Steven Chu, a Nobel prizewinning physicist, ditched funding for research into hydrogen-powered vehicles. Last year, Elon Musk, CEO of electric-vehicle manufacturer Tesla, summed up many sceptical opinions when he labelled hydrogen an &quot;incredibly dumb&quot; alternative fuel.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>If it were that simple, it would already have been done. Breaking carbon-hydrogen bonds takes a lot of energy. They only start to crack spontaneously at temperatures above 550C or so; normally, temperatures over 800C are needed. But there is a bigger problem: the soot. This scuppered an early attempt to make methane cracking industrially viable: it coated the nickel-iron-cobalt catalyst used by chemists at the petroleum company Universal Oil Products to improve the reaction rate at lower temperatures. Their solution was to burn off the carbon- making carbon dioxide.&nbsp;It's been the same lament with methane cracking ever since. Soot clogs things up and the whole process grinds to a standstill. It's inevitable: the carbon has to go somewhere.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>In his 20 years as an engineer, Abanades has worked on various types of energy generation, including nuclear and solar. His old group leader, Carlo Rubbia, first put him on to methane cracking in 2008. Rubbia had shared the Nobel prize for physics in 1984 for his part in finding the particles that govern nuclear decay, but, in his late seventies, he had long since turned his focus to energy innovation. &quot;Professor Rubbia has always said to me, don't do what others do,&quot; says Abanades.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Bubble bath</span></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Trawling ba</span></strong><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>ck through the literature, they soon found something someone hadn't done. Back in 1999, Meyer Steinberg, a chemical engineer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in&nbsp;New&nbsp;York, and a veteran of the Manhattan Project to make a nuclear fission bomb, had proposed performing methane cracking in a heat bath made of molten metal. The idea, apparently never acted upon, was that the molten metal would improve heat transfer and allow the soot to float to the surface, avoiding clogging.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Abanades and Rubbia were then based at the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies in Potsdam, Germany. On the other side of the country, at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, was perhaps the best molten metal laboratory in Europe. By 2012 the two groups were collaborating on a 30-month fast-track project to see whether they could, well, crack methane cracking.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>After two years of trial and error, they had what they thought was a viable reactor design: a vessel about the height and diameter of a hockey stick lined with quartz glass and stainless steel and filled with molten tin. Its external foil insulation made it look rather like a domestic hot water tank but it worked: they bubbled methane in at the bottom while raising the temperature of the tin up to 1000C, until hydrogen gas spouted continuously from the top.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>But the real test was what it looked like inside. After two weeks, Abanades and colleagues switched off the reactor and peered in. Soot had indeed formed, but it had all floated neatly to the tin's surface, where it could be scraped away like the slag in an ore refinery. &quot;We could even have operated the reactor for a couple more days,&quot; says Abanades. Last year, repeating the experiment at 1200C, the team managed to convert nearly 80 per cent of the methane they pumped in into hydrogen (International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol 41, p 8159).&nbsp;The notion that hydrogen can be continuously generated from methane, without directly producing any greenhouse gases, is enough to turn the heads of those in the field. &quot;These are serious people,&quot; says Eric Croiset, a chemical engineer at the University of Waterloo in Canada, who performed a review of the state of methane cracking five years ago. &quot;I wouldn't distrust their results.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Alberto Abanades hopes that a future reactor could simply burn a little of the hydrogen it generates, perhaps 15 per cent of the total yield. This approach would generate similar low levels of carbon dioxide as hydrogen produced by wind-powered electrolysis of water, but would be cheaper, more reliable and more scalable, according to his team's preliminary analysis, performed in collaboration with RWTH Aachen University in Germany.&nbsp;That still leaves the question of the soot. Scaling up methane cracking to terawatt-scale production - a reasonable extrapolation for a global hydrogen economy-would create a mountain of soot several cubic kilometres in volume every year. That is far less problematic than the carbon dioxide generated by directly burning fossil fuels, but still not an amount you can brush under the carpet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Abanades is confident a cheap and abundant supply of pure black carbon will find its uses, given the element is already in demand for nanotechnology, steel production and as a filling for car tyres. &quot;A&nbsp;new&nbsp;market could be opened up,&quot; he says. But first the carbon produced has to be of a higher quality. The methane cracking team believes its carbon is about 90 per cent pure, and could be improved either by tinkering with the reactor's chemistry or by purifying the carbon further down the line.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Is it full steam ahead for the hydrogen economy? Perhaps, especially as other bits of the puzzle seem to be coming together. For example, chemists are tinkering with ways to convert hydrogen into fuels that are easier to handle, such as methanol (see &quot;Booze cruise&quot; left). That might sound convoluted, but Abanades points out that oil is just as useless when freshly drilled from the ground. &quot;Do we actually use crude oil? No, we transform it into gasoline. Hydrogen could be similar,&quot; he says.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Spurred on by cheaper hydrogen technology and the current range limitations of batteries, Toyota, Hyundai and Honda have all recently put cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells back on sale. Last year the European Union launched the Hydrogen Mobility Europe project, aiming to create a network of hydrogen refuelling stations across Europe. The UK government is providing small subsidies for fleets of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Croiset believes electric and hydrogen cars could address different markets, perhaps electric for inner city travel and hydrogen for longer distance commuting. &quot;You will buy the vehicle that suits your needs,&quot; he says.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Abanades agrees that climate impact should be the deciding factor on which technologies to pursue. But in energy innovation, he says, it is tempting to view those working on different technologies as enemies, and it is easy to become tarnished by an association with fossil fuels. In the absence of a renewable silver-bullet, anything that limits the impact of fossil fuels has to be a good thing, he says. &quot;Emissions should be stopped now, and that could be done through methane cracking. If they aren't, when it comes to controlling global warming, we will be too late.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>THE REACTION THAT FEEDS THE WORLD<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Should the futuristic hydrogen economy fail to materialise (see main story), hydrogen from methane cracking has a market ready and waiting: ammonium fertiliser. The Haber-Bosch process, which converts hydrogen and nitrogen into ammonia, generates most of the ammonium fertiliser used in agriculture. The reaction has been credited with fuelling the 20th century's population boom. It is so ubiquitous that it is part of you: over 80 percent of the nitrogen that finds its way into the average person's tissue is thought to be as a result of the Haber-Bosch process.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Currently over 95 per cent of hydrogen production comes from traditional fossil-fuelled processes, mostly blasting natural gas with steam. In 2007 alone, the fertiliser industry generated a little short of 500 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, nearly 1 per cent of total global emissions. Re-supplying the HaberBosch process with methane-cracked hydrogen could drastically shrink this carbon footprint. With the world population expected to exceed 10 billion by the end of this century, that would be a significant step on its own.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>Clean&nbsp;hydrogen could transform our energy and crop production<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="#TOC" shape=rect linktype=anchor><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>back to table of contents</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name=LETTER.BLOCK23></a><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:#007DA1;border-collapse: collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK120"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 3.75pt 7.5pt'> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;Dark Energy&quot; Might Not Exist<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' id="content_LETTER.BLOCK119"> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="98%" style='width:98.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;min-width:98% !important'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes'> <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 7.5pt 6.0pt 7.5pt'> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>By Mike Wall, Space.com November 2016</span></b><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgOSOfCDmix_U33gm-9TkgF1gng1ajsliZdRVDzkrbT0O1uEwcqKiaS8Fvlylt09-sJ35bD1FKBFyEnPITha2PFtJIw2YD47m6dVoIcWyBoFEn5q5Ys2y7Ck0vd0W1rWqh9q_w-vvnsCP2RA6eTAyclgrZGjcpUt2Bc4v7i3IMrjhFSnax1jDcEFSoYi8Tb_WQIiKbXpE1alHR3a2sEIDW_4-j-FnEoXbrc2GQDHyTUxjTo_lKYf1lQw2ZTdqwXxNAlyLSGqUYaMyEpZEbbapCcaw9MSG13B4e&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.space.com/34503-universe-expansion-accelerating-dark-energy.html?utm_source=sp-newsletter&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;utm_campaign=20161030-sdc"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Article Link</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>The universe may not be expanding at an accelerating&nbsp;rate&nbsp;after all, meaning that mysterious &quot;dark energy&quot; might not actually exist, according to a new&nbsp;study.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>This is quite the claim. In 2011, three cosmologists from two research teams&nbsp;won the Nobel Prize in physics&nbsp;for independently showing that distant Type Ia supernovas, which are a kind of exploding star, are moving away from Earth faster than nearby ones are.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=left width=303 style='width:227.25pt;border-collapse:collapse; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;margin-left:-2.25pt;margin-right:-2.25pt; mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph;mso-table-anchor-horizontal: column;mso-table-left:left;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in' data-padding-converted=true> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:.75pt'> <td width="100%" style='width:100.0%;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><img border=0 width=303 height=283 id="_x0000_i1056" src="http://www.space.com/images/i/000/059/411/original/supernova-remnant-snr-0509-crop.jpg?interpolation=lanczos-none&amp;downsize=*:1400"></p> </td> <td width=5 valign=top style='width:3.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1057" src="https://imgssl.constantcontact.com/letters/images/sys/S.gif" class=SpacerImage></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:white'>Image captured by NASA_ Chandra<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=5 valign=top style='width:3.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center; mso-line-height-alt:.75pt'><img border=0 width=5 height=1 id="_x0000_i1058" src="https://imgssl.constantcontact.com/letters/images/sys/S.gif" class=SpacerImage></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>These surprising results, which were published in the late 1990s, strongly suggested that some strange force must be spreading space-time apart. If no such force exists, the reasoning goes, then the expansion of the universe that began with the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago should not be accelerating. Instead, it should be decreasing, slowed by the collective gravitational pull of all the galaxies, black holes and other matter in the cosmos.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>This hypothetical dispersive force came to be known as dark energy, because astronomers didn't really know what it was (and still don't, as a matter of fact).<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>But the new study, which was published online Friday (Oct. 21) in the journal&nbsp;Scientific Reports, questions this Nobel Prize-winning conclusion. Lead author J.T. Nielsen, of the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, and his colleagues analyzed 740 Type Ia supernovas using a different theoretical framework than the one that the two research teams employed in the 1990s. (The previous work also looked at just 70 or so Type Ia supernovas, Nielsen's team pointed out.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>The new analysis found just &quot;marginal evidence&quot; for the concept of dark&nbsp;energy&nbsp;and accelerating expansion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'>&quot;The evidence for accelerated expansion is, at most, what&nbsp;physicists&nbsp;call '3 sigma.' This is far short of the 5-sigma standard required to claim a discovery of fundamental significance,&quot; co-author Subir Sarkar, of Oxford University in England,&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><a href="http://r20.rs6.net/tn.jsp?f=001nGr5MQwstKvj2xhE5verzmfSVa-5m85tWxSRILryWY6m9kRM2VopHOsfUWTboQTgOSOfCDmix_U33gm-9TkgF1gng1ajsliZdRVDzkrbT0O1uEwcqKiaS8Fvlylt09-sJ35bD1FKBFyEnPITha2PFtJIw2YD47m6dVoIcWyBoFEn5q5Ys2y7Ck0vd0W1rWqh9q_w-vvnsCP2RA6eTAyclgrZGjcpUt2Bc4v7i3IMrjhFSnax1jDcEFSoYi8Tb_WQIiKbXpE1alHR3a2sEIDW_4-j-FnEoXbrc2GQDHyTUxjTo_lKYf1lQw2ZTdqwXxNAlyLSGqUYaMyEpZEbbapCcaw9MSG13B4e&amp;c=roTgTsCWSUgUdcJSykTnrStTq3SSeXf3l7OfaAoZH72i9PVbWr8QyA==&amp;ch=aOJoJrmiqM1VW2hOWKduJpxGVlagJH87_qE5zfvshin4PKLyDfWZ2w==" target="_blank" track=on shape=rect linktype=1 alt="http://www.space.com/34503-universe-expansion-accelerating-dark-energy.html?utm_source=sp-newsletter&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;utm_campaign=20161030-sdc"><b><span style='color:#36547A;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Read more here</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:white'><br> <a href="#TOC" shape=rect linktype=web><b><span style='color:#36547A; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Back to table of contents</span></b></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.75pt'> <div> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow: yes;height:.75pt'> <td style='background:#007DA1;padding:0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; 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