This month we are issuing our Call for
Abstracts (250-word) for our next COFE9 to be
held July 28-29, 2017 at the Embassy Suites in
Albuquerque NM in conjunction with the ExtraOrdinary Technology
Conference, giving you access to two (2) simultaneous conferences
for the same price. We invite presentations on energy,
propulsion, or bioenergetics research at FUTURE ENERGY.org Send
in your proposed talk toIRI@starpower.net .
It is worth mentioning the OnDemand video service now
emerging with Vimeo starting with the 2015 ExtraOrdinary Tech
Conference which includes Valone's presentation on research with
the carbon-free "V-Track Spiral Magnetic Motor" Spiral
Magnetic Motor which you can rent for only $1.99. Lastly, in
our Story #5, if anyone wants one or more DVDs from this year's
future energy conference, COFE8
On October 19, 2016, environmentalist Dr. Jim
Hansen sent a public letter to Norway's Prime Minister Solberg of Norway asking
him to withdraw his latest (24th) licensing round to drill in the
Arctic since the resulting carbon upsurge violates the country's
signing of the Paris Agreement. In an extraordinary move, Dr.
Hansen has collaborated on a lawsuit in that country against the
government based on Norway's liberal constitution which
guarantees in Article 112: "Every person has a right
to an environment that is conducive to health and to a natural
environment whose productivity and diversity are maintained.
Natural resources should be managed on the basis of comprehensive
long-term considerations whereby this right will be safeguarded
for future generations as well." IRI believes that such
rights to a temperate environment that is not overheated may
become the basis for more lawsuits in other countries as well.
All the more reason to support our efforts to explore new forms
of future energy and propulsion that are carbon-free.
In the same vein, on behalf of Rocky Mountain
Institute and the Carbon War Room, everyone is invited to join
another famous environmentalist, Amory Lovins for a special
discussion hosted by Brookings Institution. Commemorating the
40th anniversary of his landmark article "Energy
Strategy: The Road Not Taken" the event will be
on Wednesday, November 2, 9-10:30am, in the Falk Room,
Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington,
DC. The discussion will feature Amory and other energy
experts discussing advancements in renewables and energy
efficiency over the past four decades-and their expectations for
the next 40 years. RSVP. Space is limited.
Please enjoy the original 1976
article, "Energy Strategy: The Road Not
Taken" and Amory's 2016 article reflecting on the last
40 years, "Soft Energy Paths: Lessons of the First 40
Years." Please contact Meg Cayler at firstname.lastname@example.org with
questions or RSVP for this upcoming event or RMI-CWR.
This month, our First Story #1 is a double header
celebrating the "Rise of the Electric Cars" for those
who are interested in continuing their support for freeing our
country from fossil fuel usage in the next election. If the
next eight years has supporting policies for clean air and
reduction of carbon emissions, Tesla, Chevy, and Nissan plan to
start selling long-range electric cars in the $30,000 range and
by 2022 (just six years from now), "electric cars will
cost the same as their internal-combustion counterparts"
(old fashioned gas-chugging, black smoke belching vehicles) and
thus displacing about 2 million barrels per day of oil demand by
2023. This article also projects battery performance, demand, and
cost reduction per year. In the Related Article, the new 2017 Chevy BOLT (with a
"B") has an amazing and realistic reviewer's
confirmation of a 238 mile range, which is more than most people
drive in a day!
Our Story #2 is a real breakthrough for combining
SOLAR desalination of seawater with waste coconut husks to grow
hydroponic tomatoes with NO pesticides or soil! Check out the
short video explaining this trend for the future of farming, when
drought from climate change starts encroaching on every country's
fertile farmland, such as in California.
Story #3 gives us an update on the evolution of wind
farms, which some groups successfully opposed for various
reasons. Now the latest trend is a FLOATING platform with anchors
that can survive a hurricane and have less environmental impact.
The other advantage is locating them ten miles offshore, as
the first installations off the coast of Scotland and Maine have
been. The next upscale will be about 100 turbines more than 30
miles off the California coast by Trident Winds .
Story #4 is a great review of the slow progress of
cold fusion, the most controversial energy technology known, with
the US Secretary of Defense now providing a briefing on it to the
House of Representatives because Russian, China, Israel, Japan,
and India all have cold fusion programs in place. Furthermore,
the University of Missouri has a $5 million lab as well. The
article also contributions from our former COFE presenters, Dr.
David Nagel from GWU and Dr. George Miley from the U of Illinois
and LENR great, Dr. Peter Hagelstein from MIT. With anomalous
heat being the main common phenomenon, it is interesting how
theories still widely vary. Perhaps we will hopefully see a
commercial form of any type of fusion in our lifetime.
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1) The Rise of the Electric Cars
By Tony Randall, Bloomberg Energy News
A shift is under way that will lead to widespread
adoption of EVs in the next decade. By 2040, long-range
electric cars will cost less than $22,000 (in today's dollars),
according to the projections. Thirty-five percent of new cars
worldwide will have a plug.
This isn't something oil markets are planning for, and
it's easy to see why. Plug-in cars make up just one-tenth of 1
percent of the global car market today. They're a rarity on the streets
of most countries and still cost significantly more than similar
gasoline burners. OPEC maintains that electric vehicles (EVs) will
make up just 1 percent of cars in 2040. Last year ConocoPhillips
Chief Executive Officer Ryan Lance told me EVs won't have a
material impact for another 50 years-probably not in his lifetime.
But here's what we know: In the next few years, Tesla,
Chevy, and Nissan plan to start selling long-range electric cars in
the $30,000 range. Other carmakers and tech companies are investing
billions on dozens of new models. By 2020, some of these will cost
less and perform better than their gasoline counterparts. The aim
would be to match the success of Tesla's Model S, which now
outsells its competitors in the large luxury class in the U.S. The
question then is how much oil demand will these cars displace? And
when will the reduced demand be enough to tip the scales and cause
the next oil crisis? First we need an estimate for how
quickly sales will grow.
Last year EV sales grew by about 60 percent worldwide.
That's an interesting number, because it's also roughly the annual
growth rate that Tesla forecasts for sales through 2020, and it's
the same growth rate that helped the Ford Model T cruise
past the horse and buggy in the 1910s. For comparison, solar panels
are following a similar curve at around 50 percent growth each
year, while LED light-bulb sales are soaring by about 140 percent
Yesterday, on the first episode of
Bloomberg's new animated series Sooner Than You Think, we
calculated the effect of continued 60 percent growth. We found that
electric vehicles could displace oil demand of 2 million barrels a
day as early as 2023. That would create a glut of oil equivalent to
what triggered the 2014 oil crisis.
Compound annual growth rates as high as 60 percent
can't hold up for long, so it's a very aggressive forecast. BNEF
takes a more methodical approach in its analysis today, breaking
down electric vehicles to their component costs to forecast when
prices will drop enough to lure the average car buyer. Using BNEF's
model, we'll cross the oil-crash benchmark of 2 million barrels a
few years later-in 2028.
BNEF's analysis focuses on the total cost of ownership
of electric vehicles, including things like maintenance, gasoline
costs, and-most important-the cost of batteries.
Batteries account for a third of the cost of building
an electric car. For EVs to achieve widespread adoption, one of
four things must happen:
1. Governments must offer incentives to lower the
2. Manufacturers must accept extremely low profit margins.
3. Customers must be willing to pay more to drive electric.
4. The cost of batteries must come down.
The first three things are happening now in the
early-adopter days of electric vehicles, but they can't be
sustained. Fortunately, the cost of batteries is headed in the
There's another side to this EV equation: Where will
all this electricity come from? By 2040, electric cars will draw
1,900 terawatt-hours of electricity, according to BNEF. That's
equivalent to 10 percent of humanity's electricity produced last year.
The good news is electricity is getting
cleaner. Since 2013, the world has been adding more
electricity-generating capacity from wind and solar than from coal,
natural gas, and oil combined. Electric cars will reduce the cost
of battery storage and help store intermittent sun and wind power.
In the move toward a cleaner grid, electric vehicles and renewable
power create a mutually beneficial circle of demand.
And what about all the lithium and other finite
materials used in the batteries? BNEF analyzed those markets as
well, and found they're just not an issue. Through 2030, battery
packs will require less than 1 percent of the known reserves of
lithium, nickel, manganese, and copper. They'll require 4 percent
of the world's cobalt. After 2030, new battery chemistries will
probably shift to other source materials, making packs lighter,
smaller, and cheaper.
Despite all this, there's still reason for oil markets
to be skeptical. Manufacturers need to actually follow through on
bringing down the price of electric cars, and there aren't yet
enough fast-charging stations for convenient long-distance travel.
Many new drivers in China and India will continue to choose
gasoline and diesel. Rising oil demand from developing countries
could outweigh the impact of electric cars, especially if crude
prices fall to $20 a barrel and stay there.
The other unknown that BNEF considers is the rise of
autonomous cars and ride-sharing services like Uber and Lyft, which
would all put more cars on the road that drive more than 20,000
miles a year. The more miles a car drives, the more economical
battery packs become. If these new services are successful, they
could boost electric-vehicle market share to 50 percent of new cars
by 2040, according to BNEF.
One thing is certain: Whenever the oil crash comes, it
will be only the beginning. Every year that follows will bring more
electric cars to the road, and less demand for oil. Someone will be
left holding the barrel.
2) Sunlight and Seawater Only for Produce Farms
By Andrei Mihai ZME Science.org
New farm will produce 17,000 tonnes of tomatoes
every year, in the Australian desert, using only water from the
ocean and sunlight.
If you want to build a farm, you first need two
things: good soil and good water. The Australian desert has neither
- but it does have a lot of sun and it's close to the ocean.
An international team of scientists wanted to take advantage of
this scenario and spent the last six years designing a system which
would thrive under these conditions.
It all started with a small greenhouse in 2010. Then
in 2014, they started building the full-scale farm and now the
whole thing's up and running. They pipe draws seawater from two
kilometers away without using any fossil fuels, to a 20-hectare
site in the arid Port Augusta region. There, a solar-powered
desalination plant removes the salt, creating enough
freshwater to irrigate the 180,000 tomato plants inside the
greenhouse. The farm already has contracts with supermarkets in
Australia to sell tomatoes.
As if not having water and soil wasn't enough, the
climate is also unfavorable for tomatoes. The summer is too hot and
the winter is too cold for the plants to thrive. Yet with
technology and careful planning, this can also be overcome. During
the summer, seawater-soaked cardboard keeps the greenhouse
cool and during the winter, solar energy heats it up. There is also
no need for any pesticides or soil, as the plants grow in
coconut husks instead of soil. Seawater cleans the air and kills
off unwanted germs and pests.
All of this is powered by 23,000 mirrors reflecting
sunlight to a 115-metre high receiver tower. The system
produces 39 megawatts of energy on a good day, more than enough for
"These closed production systems are very
clever," says Robert Park at the University of
Sydney, Australia. "I believe that systems using renewable
energy sources will become better and better and increase in the
future, contributing even more of some of our foods."
Without a doubt, this is an innovative system, but is
it truly needed? Paul Kristiansen at the University of New
England, Australia, questions this need.
"It's a bit like crushing a garlic clove with a
sledgehammer," he says. "We don't have problems growing
tomatoes in Australia."
But he does add that in the future, under the huge
stress created by climate change, farms like this might become
extremely useful in some parts of the world. "Then it
will be good to have back-up plans," he concludes.
3) Off-Shore Wind Farms in Platforms that Float
By Dianne Cardwell, New York Times, October 2016
ORONO, Me. -
The sun was beating down on the leafy campus of the University of
Maine one afternoon last month. But inside a hangarlike laboratory,
a miniature hurricane was raging.
Storm-force gales swept over a deep pool of water,
churning waves that, at full scale on the ocean, would have been
twice the size of those recorded during Hurricane
Sandy in 2012.
Happily for the researchers, the equipment they were
testing, a novel type of floating platform meant to support a wind
turbine in open water, remained upright through the maelstrom.
True, it was only one fifty-second of the real-world
scale. But it was a success as one of many experiments and projects
underway worldwide in a similar quest. As clean-energy engineers
seek to make offshore wind farmsmore financially, aesthetically
and environmentally viable, they are turning to floating supports
to enable wind turbines to move into deeper waters farther from the
Right now, almost all offshore wind turbines require
fixed platforms built into the seafloor. Floating turbines, with
anchors, would mean new flexibility in where wind farms could be
placed, with potentially less impact on marine life - and less
opposition from the human neighbors on shore.
Look," exclaimed Habib Joseph Dagher, executive
director of the university's Advanced Structures and Composites
Center here, pointing to a minuscule figure perched on the bobbing
deck. "The water is just reaching his feet." The
Lilliputian plastic platform worker had weathered the storm.
The University of Maine testing is part of an
elaborate physics experiment meant to simulate conditions that
full-scale floating wind turbines could face at an installation
being planned about 10 miles off the Maine coast in up to 360 feet
of water near tiny Monhegan Island.
For nearly 18 months in 2013 and 2014, an operating
version of the apparatus - one-eighth of scale - sat in the waters
off Castine, Me., sending electricity to the grid. That proved the
technology fundamentally worked and guided refinements to the
design. Now, Dr. Dagher's team is using the data collected at the
lab to confirm the final form, a crucial next step in bringing the
technology to market.
4) Cold Fusion: Science's Most Controversial
Technology is back
By Michael Brooks,
New Scientist Magazine, October 2016
The claim to have tamed the sun in the lab was
debunked 25 years ago. So why are governments and investors now
pouring money into it again?
SCIENCE has had its share of embarrassing
moments. Take Piltdown man, the missing link in human
evolution exposed as a fraud after 40 years. Or the Allan
Hills meteorite, hailed by US president Bill Clinton in a televised
announcement in 1996 because it seemed to contain evidence of
life on Mars - only it probably doesn't.
But few scientific embarrassments raised temperatures
quite as much as cold fusion. In 1989, University of Utah chemists
Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced that they had, at
room temperature in the lab, tamed the process that powers the sun:
nuclear fusion. This would have been an almost unimaginable
technological leap. But no one could reproduce the result, at least
not provably, reliably, or to general satisfaction. With no
convincing theory to back up the observations either, Pons and
Fleischmann were ostracised. Cold fusion - and anyone still willing
to work on it - was frozen out.
Fast forward 25 years, and thaw is in the air. You
won't hear the words "cold fusion", but substantial sums
of money are quietly pouring into a field now known as low-energy
nuclear reactions, or LENRs. Earlier this year, the US House of
Representatives Committee on Armed Services declared it was
"aware of recent positive developments" in developing
LENRs and noted their potential to "produce ultra-clean,
low-cost renewable energy" and their "strong national
security implications". Highlighting too the interest of
Russia, China, Israel and India, it suggested the US could not
afford to be left behind, and requested that the Secretary of
Defense provide a briefing on the science by
Cold fusion seems to be coming in from the cold - but
Mainstream physics has long had a simple answer for
cold fusion believers: no-can-do. Nuclear fusion means overcoming
the hugely powerful electrostatic repulsion between atomic nuclei
and forcing them to merge into heavier nuclei. That needs humongous
temperatures and pressures. The dream of hot fusion is being
pursued with vigour by the scientific establishment: at
the International Thermonuclear Experimental
Reactor (ITER) in the south of France, for example, and in a
host of smaller projects.
But a small band of believers has never lost faith in
cold fusion. Researchers at the US Naval Research Lab (NRL) in
Washington DC, have long put small budgets and spare time into
seeing whether nuclear reactions really can happen at room
temperature. Graham Hublerstarted there, and is now director
of the Sidney Kimmel Institute for Nuclear Renaissance at the
University of Missouri in Columbia, a cold-fusion lab established
in 2012 with $5.5 million of philanthropic funding. "We're
convinced there's some sort of energy source here," he says.
"I wouldn't have taken this job if I didn't feel that
"In Japan, they want to develop the technique to
clean up nuclear waste"
That energy source lies in deuterium, a form of heavy
hydrogen found naturally in seawater, with nuclei composed of a
proton and a neutron. Most incarnations of cold fusion are some
variant on Pons and Fleischmann's original: you take a rod of
palladium metal, dunk it into a beaker of water enriched in
deuterium, and pass a low current through a platinum wire coil also
held in the beaker. The idea is that somehow this current loads
deuterium on to the lattice of palladium atoms so forcefully that
the deuterium nuclei begin to fuse together, releasing energy. Do
this right, and a cubic metre of seawater would release the energy
of 10 barrels of crude oil.
Ask David Nagel, another former NRL scientist,
whether the sort of room-temperature "heat anomalies"
that Pons, Fleishmann and others claim to have seen in experiments
are real, and he doesn't mince his words. "Yes - as in hell,
yes," he says. Nagel now works at George Washington University
in Washington DC, and recently set up a non-profit LENR lobbying
association, called LENRIA. "I wouldn't have done that if
I didn't think this was both real and important," he says.
"The results are out there, and people are ignoring
A cynic might say they are all too easy to ignore.
"At NRL we did 120 experiments in the first two years and got
absolutely nothing," says Hubler. In the past year, however,
the NRL team has made some experimental changes and produced six
anomalous heat events. The overall success rate of just 5 per cent
might be seen as a "black eye", Hubler admits, but he
insists he knows researchers with much better reproducibility
That is not without consequence, and if acrimony is a
measure of research credibility, there is something in cold
fusion's new wave. Take Italian LENR researcher Andrea Rossi and
his Leonardo corporation. For some years, Rossi has been
testing a device he calls the Energy Catalyzer or
"E-Cat", latterly with heavyweight financial
backing. Tom Darden, CEO of the $2.2 billion private equity
fund Cherokee Investment Partners, put more than $10 million into
Leonardo through a subsidiary, Industrial Heat, that has
interests in a suite of LENR technologies.
In April this year, things turned sour. Rossi filed a lawsuit in a
Florida court against Industrial Heat, complaining that Darden and
various other business associates had "meticulously and
systematically defrauded" him and his company in an effort to
"misappropriate" his intellectual property rights.
Industrial Heat has since brought a counterclaim, alleging
that one of Rossi's E-cat tests had been a "carefully scripted
effort to deceive". Both sides deny any wrongdoing.
The saga has given renewed ammunition to cold fusion's
critics in the US and Europe. In Japan, however, things have been
proceeding more quietly - initially with a rather different end in
mind than generating energy. In 2002, researchers from Japan's
multinational Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) claimed to have
used LENR techniques to "transmute" toxic, radioactive
elements, such as those produced in conventional nuclear fission
reactors, into other, less dangerous elements. That work is still
going on. "MHI wants to develop the technique to clean up
nuclear waste," says Jirohta Kasagi of Tohoku
University's Clean Energy Research Lab.
In 2013, researchers from Toyota Central Research and
Development Laboratories reported successfully replicating the
original experiment. In a technical review published in December
last year, Mitsubishi claims that "transmutation
from cesium (Cs) to praseodymium (Pr), from barium (Ba) to samarium
(Sm), from strontium (Sr) to molybdenum (Mo), etc., has been
observed". The processes have, of course, been patented. The
Japanese government, keen to decontaminate the site of the
Fukushima nuclear reactor meltdown, is now providing some funding
for academic LENR research.
A decade ago, researchers at the NRL tried to
reproduce the Mitsubishi results, and sent a team to Japan to learn
how to transmute elements first hand. NRL's David Kidwell, who
carried out tests on the Mitsubishi lab equipment, was not given
permission to talk to New Scientist directly, but NRL
documents authorised for public release suggest another explanation
for the results: contamination. They declare that
"environmental surveys at MHI by NRL and MHI found
praseodymium in key areas of laboratory" and the "presence
of praseodymium may have other explanations than transmutation of
Cs". Yasuhiro Iwamura, who led the Mitsubishi team, rebuts the
NRL explanation and sticks by his claims for the experiments.
Post-Fukushima, Japan has also seen a wave of interest
in LENR for energy generation, with Mitsubishi, Toyota and Nissan
all investing money. Last year, the Japanese government's New
Energy and Industrial Technology Development
Organization announced a programme called "Energy and the
Environment New Leading Technology" that called, among other
things, for research into technologies that induce heat reactions
between metals and hydrogen. Hideki Yoshino, a language schools
magnate, has set up a company called Clean Planet to
research "cleaner, safer, and more abundant resources such as
solar, geothermal, LENR (also known as cold fusion), and wind to
supply our energy needs".
Clean Planet is the driving force behind the Tohuku
Clean Energy Research Lab, where Kasagi works. Kasagi's aim is to
bring a device producing anomalous heat to market by the Tokyo
Olympics in 2020. "Expected heat output might be up to several
tens of watts or more," he says. As yet, he doesn't know how
reliably this heat will be produced, but he is working on theories
that might help improve reproducibility. "My deep interest is
to clarify how the nuclear reaction can occur," he says.
That remains perhaps the biggest stumbling block:
explaining how LENR is supposed to work when physics says it can't.
"I dismiss most of the theories out of hand," Hubler
says. Nagel feels similarly. "When it comes to the crunch,
there's no theory that overlaps sufficiently with experimental
data," he says.
Instead, the anomalous heat generation comes about
because, when infused with deuterium and possibly other
contaminants, a palladium surface generates a varying
electromagnetic field that shifts electrons about, in turn
releasing neutrons. These are absorbed by other nearby atoms,
transmuting them and causing them to release gamma-ray photons that
are absorbed by other electrons, which radiate the extra energy as
Joseph Zawodny at NASA's Langley Research Center
in Virginia thinks the theory is a "rich concept" that
could prove extremely fruitful. "LENR is only one of its
applications," he says. It doesn't rely on new physics, and
makes some very specific predictions - not that those predictions
have been properly tested yet. Zawodny made his own attempts, but
they were "brief and low budget", he admits. The ongoing
controversy surrounding Rossi's E-Cat has made getting funding for
further experiments difficult, he says.
Besides Zawodny's inconclusive results, Widom and
Larsen have graphs that purport to show a match between their
theoretical predictions and experimental observations of how
quickly various transmutation products are created. But this isn't
terribly convincing to critics, because it is
"after-the-fact" fitting to data from controversial
experiments carried out years ago.
George Miley of the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign did those experiments. Now emeritus, he is still
active. He had a patent granted in 2012 for a process called
"dislocation site formation", which describes loading and
unloading of isotopes of hydrogen into thin films in order to provide,
among other things, "nuclear reaction processes". Miley
claims to have a working LENR technology that produces hundreds of
watts of energy, but doesn't want to say any more than that.
"It is premature to discuss this new work in any detail,"
Such reluctance to share doesn't help to dispel
scepticism, Zawodny laments. "The cold fusion stigma still
remains, albeit in a weakened form," he says. "We're
frustrated," says Hubler. "If we had just one-thousandth
of the money going into hot fusion..."
That comparison is somewhat problematic. It's true
that hot fusion isn't going anywhere fast either. ITER is beset by
delays and cost overruns, and won't be working fully until the
2030s, while other projects are hardly out of the starting
blocks. But at least we know why and how hot fusion works - it's
what powers the sun, after all. Making it work on Earth is simply a
monumental engineering problem.
Hubler's unspoken hope is for a funded fundamental
physics programme that would methodically dissect cold fusion
experiments to work out what is going on in the interesting 5 per
cent. At the moment, he admits, there is too much trial-and-error
experimentation coupled with wild speculation by theorists who
often tend to ignore the details of experiments carried out so far
- and indeed sometimes the known laws of physics.
Zawodny sees three vital tasks ahead. First,
independent validation of existing methods for producing anomalous
heat. Second, theoretical work to explain as much of the body of
observations as is possible with one theory. Third, experimental
testing of what a suitable theory predicts. "I think you must
have all three," he says. The sticking point, as he sees it,
is that most people want hard, reproducible proof that the effect
is real before they stump up any cash for research. "There are
few rewards without risk," he says. "One theory
makes an interesting statement about cold fusion: it isn't
Some think it is worth a punt. Despite Cherokee's
aborted investment in Rossi's technology, Woodford Investment
Management in Oxford, UK, has recently funnelled £35 million into
Industrial Heat. The company acknowledges that this is a "high
risk area", but says it has done two years of due diligence
and wants to build a suite of LENR technologies from what it sees
as the most highly regarded people in the field. "We analysed
numerous reports from a variety of scientists as well as data on
investigations that had been undertaken by several government
departments around the world," a spokesman told New
Woodford's strategy is to take candidates showing real
evidence of success, develop and optimise them, and then gain
independent third-party verification of their findings. "It is
an area that has been met with much scepticism and we are certainly
not blind to this," the spokesman says. "However, the
evidence we have seen to date, coupled with the potential market
opportunity, suggests to us that it is an area that is worthy of
Clearly, the House Committee on Armed Services feels
the same way, but the latest signs are that the Secretary of
Defense's report is delayed and won't now be presented next week as
planned. We must wait a little longer to hear how warm his words
Nuclear fission involves splitting up heavy
atomic nuclei into smaller ones. The energy this releases powers
all nuclear power stations in operation today Nuclear
fusion releases energy by joining up light atomic nuclei such
as hydrogen and helium, the process that at huge temperatures
powers the sun. So far fusion has only been achieved on any scale
on Earth in the uncontrolled environment of the hydrogen
bomb. Cold fusion is the controversial idea that high
temperatures are not required for nuclear fusion: it can be achieved
at or close to room temperature
Our COFE8 Conference DVD's are now Available
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Real Tesla Car Motor, Batteries not Required
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Energy Extraction with ZPE and Magnetism
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New Solutions for you!
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Nanobubble Revolution and Nanocavity Plasma
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Quantum Fire Project
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Faster than Light Experiments Simulations
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Stueckelberg Off Mass Shell Model
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Electrogravitics Potential of Laminated Metals (2 Hrs)
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The Basis for Longevity
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Biochemistry and Physics of Longevity
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Smacker & Water Smacker
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Constructing Free Energy Devices
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